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Alexander Bailey
Alexander Bailey

Toad for SQL Server 6.8.1: The Ultimate Guide for SQL Server Developers and Administrators


The SGA is a group of shared memory structures, known as SGA components, that contain data and control information for one Oracle Database instance. The SGA is shared by all server and background processes. Examples of data stored in the SGA include cached data blocks and shared SQL areas.




Toad for SQL Server 6.8.1



A PGA is a memory region that contains data and control information for a server process. It is nonshared memory created by Oracle Database when a server process is started. Access to the PGA is exclusive to the server process. There is one PGA for each server process. Background processes also allocate their own PGAs. The total PGA memory allocated for all background and server processes attached to an Oracle Database instance is referred to as the total instance PGA memory, and the collection of all individual PGAs is referred to as the total instance PGA, or just instance PGA.


If you started your Oracle Database instance with a server parameter file, which is the default if you created the database with the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), enter the following command:


The SCOPE = SPFILE clause sets the value only in the server parameter file, and not for the running instance. You must include this SCOPE clause because MEMORY_MAX_TARGET is not a dynamic initialization parameter.


If you are using a server parameter file (SPFILE), the database remembers the sizes of the automatically tuned SGA components across instance shutdowns. As a result, the database instance does not need to learn the characteristics of the workload again each time the instance is started. The instance can begin with information from the previous instance and continue evaluating workload where it left off at the last shutdown.


If you create your database with DBCA and choose manual shared memory management, DBCA provides fields where you must enter sizes for the buffer cache, shared pool, large pool, and Java pool. It then sets the corresponding initialization parameters in the server parameter file (SPFILE) that it creates. If you instead create the database with the CREATE DATABASE SQL statement and a text initialization parameter file, you can do one of the following:


In releases before Oracle Database 10g, the amount of shared pool memory that was allocated was equal to the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter plus the amount of internal SGA overhead computed during instance startup. The internal SGA overhead refers to memory that is allocated by Oracle Database during startup, based on the values of several other initialization parameters. This memory is used to maintain state for different server components in the SGA. For example, if the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter is set to 64MB and the internal SGA overhead is computed to be 12MB, the real size of the shared pool is 64+12=76MB, although the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter is still displayed as 64MB.


If you create your database with DBCA, you can specify a value for the total instance PGA. DBCA then sets the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameters in the server parameter file (SPFILE) that it creates. If you do not specify the total instance PGA, DBCA chooses a reasonable default.


The automatic PGA memory management method applies to work areas allocated by both dedicated and shared server process. See Oracle Database Concepts for information about PGA memory allocation in dedicated and shared server modes.


This initialization parameter specifies the maximum number of background populate servers to use for IM column store population, so that these servers do not overload the rest of the system. Set this parameter to an appropriate value based on the number of cores in the system.


This initialization parameter limits the maximum number of background populate servers used for IM column store repopulation, as trickle repopulation is designed to use only a small percentage of the populate servers. The value for this parameter is a percentage of the INMEMORY_MAX_POPULATE_SERVERS initialization parameter value. For example, if this parameter is set to 10 and INMEMORY_MAX_POPULATE_SERVERS is set to 10, then on average one core is used for trickle repopulation.


  • Here I show my experience on the steps to install 9.2.0.4 and patch it up to 9.2.0.8 on Enterprise Linux 4.4. In general, Oracle 9.2.0.4 is easy to be installed with the type of a standalone database.Determine the domain, hostname and IP address.

  • [oracle@oracle9i ]$ vi /etc/resolv.conf search example.com nameserver 168.95.1.1 [oracle@oracle9i ]$ vi /etc/sysconfig/network NETWORKING=yes HOSTNAME=oracle9i.example.com GATEWAY=192.168.0.1 [oracle@oracle9i ]$ vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 ... IPADDR=192.168.0.151 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 NETWORK=192.168.0.0 ... Add a host entry to /etc/host.

  • [root@oracle9i ]$ echo "192.168.0.151 oracle9i.example.com oracle9i" >> /etc/hosts Retrieve public yum repository configuration file from Oracle.

  • [root@oracle9i ]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d [root@oracle9i yum.repos.d]# mv ULN-Base.repo ULN-Base.repo.disabled [root@oracle9i yum.repos.d]# wget -yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el4.repo --20:51:52-- -yum.oracle.com/public-yum-el4.repo => `public-yum-el4.repo' Resolving public-yum.oracle.com... 141.146.44.34 Connecting to public-yum.oracle.com141.146.44.34:80... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 1,236 (1.2K) [text/plain] 100%[====================================================================================================>] 1,236 --.--K/s 20:51:52 (3.01 MB/s) - `public-yum-el4.repo' saved [1236/1236] Add an entry for EL4 update 4.

Since Oracle support only EL4 update 6 and above of yum service, so we take the baseurl of update 6 as our baseurl and chenage an attribute "enabled" to "1".


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